Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Kitchen Concoctions: The Best Bubbles

Children from Ysgol-y-Lys primary school in Wales gather to see which group of young scientists has developed the best bubble mixture

The first time I came across this activity I was still teaching full time and was attending a course run by my now colleague, Nicky Waller.  I am not going to lie to you, I had much more fun than a middle aged lady should be having with some washing up liquid and a bubble wand!  We had been challenged to investigate the proportions of three ingredients (washing up liquid, glycerine and water) to develop an economical bubble mixture that would make the ‘best’ bubbles, and I was determined that my team would ‘win’.

Top Tips: If you ask people to find a mixture that produces the ‘best’ bubbles without giving any more guidance, it is likely to lead to some interesting discussion.  After a while they will realise that they need to think about what is meant by best; it could be the size or the quantity of the bubbles or how long they last for example.

Deciding how they are going to measure bubble size is yet another challenge – my favourite that I have seen children chose over the years being … popping the bubbles on sugar paper, which leaves a lovely measurable ring!

I have delivered the session myself many times in the intervening years both as a primary teacher and in my current role.  I have run it with various groups including groups of teachers, parents and with children from nursery through to year 6, including in mixed age groups.It never fails; participants are always fully engaged and, if approached carefully, there is a high degree of relevant discussion and science learning.

Full details of the activity, including teacher notes, risk assessments and activity sheets can be found in our free resource Kitchen Concoctions

Because it can be done in mixed age groups, works well outside and is cheap enough to provide enough resources for each child to have their own equipment this activity could easily be adapted for socially distanced circumstances.  However, it does need to be approached thoughtfully if it is to move beyond being  more than ‘a fun thing to do’.  Having said that, it is also important not to move children too quickly to formally measuring and recording their recipes as they benefit from an initial period of play, exploration and discussion before formulating their method.

The challenge of devising an economic yet effective bubble mixture for a ‘toy manufacturer’ is an engaging start to this activity.  The poster is provided as part of the free online resource.
Top Tip: Do give children small containers to work with as this forces them to produce smaller quantities of bubble mixture.  I know from bitter experience that larger containers will lead to them using industrial quantities of washing up liquid!

After the initial exploratory phase, children work together to work out the ratio of ingredients that produces the ‘best’ bubbles, while keeping the costs of ingredients as low as possible (there are lots of opportunities for the application of maths at this point).  It can be tempting to organise children to work efficiently, and difficult to give children space to make their own mistakes and ‘muddle along’; for a conscientious teacher this can feel as if you are not doing your job properly.  I find that making a few explicit notes on my planning helps me to feel better about this ‘hands off’ approach.

For teachers brave enough to take this approach and then allow time afterwards for a discussion to evaluate how they worked the learning opportunities are immense, especially if there is time for children to repeat the activity.  At this stage I used to add an extra level of challenge by providing more than one brand of washing up liquid (preferably in different colours; not all washing up liquids are green).

Developing an effective product and reporting the results is engaging for participants of all ages, and helps them to understand the diversity of science related careers.  This helps to raise children's  science capital.

Children will need to find ways to present their findings to the toy manufacturer that set the challenge and this will inevitably lead to further discussion and the opportunity to use their literacy skills, and maths too if they decide to use a table and include costings.  I find that enthusiasm is maintained throughout in a way that doesn’t always happen with many other ways of recording science as children have a real reason to share their results.  If your children send their report to ciec@york.ac.uk they will be delighted to receive a reply from the ‘toy company’ that set the challenge.

This is a great activity to share with families so why not provide a link to our IndusTRY AT HOME page on your school website?

This post is by Jane Winter, one of our advisory teachers who works in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.

Monday, June 22, 2020

Sustainable Stories: Which Plastic?

This blog post is brought to you by Jane Winter, one of our advisory teachers who works in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.

Although the materials for this investigation are free and readily available, they can be a little tricky to source.  However, it is well worth taking the trouble to do this as, once you have, everything else is very straightforward.  When I have done this activity I have found that there is a real buzz in the classroom.  Moreover, you could easily provide enough equipment for a whole classroom full of socially distanced youngsters to do the activity at the same time.

The tricky bit

You will need samples of some different types of plastic. 
Sample 1: The thin clear plastic that often comes around packs of Christmas cards and in some other packaging
 Sample 2: Foam plastic (expanded polystyrene, PS) used as for takeway foods such as burgers and chips
Sample 3: Polystyrene, as used for the lids of takeaway coffee cups. The name of this plastic surprises the children, as ‘expanded’ polystyrene is commonly referred to as polystyrene, but for scientists, there are two types, and this one is un-expanded!
Sample 4: The plastic used for milk bottles (polythene, HDPE)

Each child will need a strip of each plastic cut to approximately 8 x 1 cm.  They will also need a bowl, jug or tub of water large enough to put their hand into and some table salt.

Top Tip 
This is one activity that you really must try out for yourself before letting your class lose with it.  Manufacturers sometimes change the formulation of their plastics and so they don’t always behave as you expect them to!

The fun bit
Children test each sample to see if it floats in water or in salt solution (brine) and how it reacts to being folded.  The results of their tests will let them identify what each sample of plastic is made of.  For example, PVC and polystyrene will both sink in plain water; but if salt is added the polystyrene will begin to float.
This is an important thing to be able to do as different plastics are recycled in different ways so we need to be able to identify them.  At this stage I have found that providing children with a simple table helps them to organise their data as they carry out the tests.  

Full instructions, including safety notes, for how to do the activity are provided in this free to download resource.

This activity builds on the work that children have done on materials in KS1. It helps them to develop their skills of working scientifically by sorting in a more sophisticated way.  There is a simple sorting key on activity sheet 5 of the resource which will support children develop their understanding of how keys work, as they use it to classify their plastic samples.

As children start to think about the reasons that we might need to be able to classify materials more precisely they can begin to consider why and how this science might be used in industry.  A class discussion will help them to understand that being able to use post-consumer waste makes processes more economically viable as well as more environmentally friendly.  These sorts of links help to raise children’s science capital as they see how the science that they do in school has real life applications and is relevant to their lives both now and in the future.

To coincide with InternationalWomen in Engineering day we have published a new IndusTRY AT HOME activity for you share with families.  Why don’t you put a link on your school website?

For a broader set of activities linked to this topic, please go to http://www.ciec.org.uk/resources/plastics-playtime.html which expands the topic to look at the heat insulation and shock absorption properties of plastics – and children design and test packaging to protect parcels of fragile crisps, which they post back to themselves in school – the ultimate test of their designs!

Monday, May 18, 2020

Sustainable Stories: Which washing powder?

This month’s blog is brought to you by Clare Docking, one of our advisory teachers who works with industry and schools in the East of England.

I love sharing this activity with our partner schools. children really enjoy getting stuck into cleaning the stains off fabrics using different washing products whilst at the same time improving their investigation skills.  The activity lends itself to being run with a small number of children in a mixed aged classroom – something that is a reality for many teachers at the moment.  Children can also work outdoors if the weather is fine.

Getting Ready

As the free resource explains, the only kit you will need is readily available household equipment.  Asking children to bring small samples of different washing powder, liquid or gels from home will give you a selection to compare without any unnecessary shopping trips.  You could also include the children in the preparation by working with them to produce the stained fabric ready to test.

Full details of the activity can be found in our free publication and incudes teachers’ notes, children’s activity sheets and national curriculum links.

Planning the investigation

I have found that the interactive planning tool  is a great way for children to organise their thoughts as they plan how they are going to carry out their investigation.  If children haven’t used one before, work with them to show them how they can use it to record all of the possible variables and to decide what they are going to measure and what they are going to keep the same.  They may find this easier to do if they have the opportunity to ‘have a play’ with the materials first and therefore begin to formulate their ideas about which product they think might be the most effective.  They can then decide how they can prove that their hypothesis is right!  With this in mind, make sure that you have plenty of spare stained cloths and washing product so that you still have enough left when you begin the main investigation.

Instead of using the interactive planning tool you may choose to use the post-it planning template which is provided with the resource.  This will be particularly useful if you are working outdoors.

Sharing results

In my experience children can be just as engaged when it comes to sharing their results as they are when carrying out the main activity.  Two approaches that I have seen used effectively are asking children to write to the manufacturer to advise them of their findings and writing an advertisement extolling the virtues of the most effective product.  I find that children love using phrases such as ‘Scientists found that XXX was more effective at xxx than the brand leader’ knowing that they are the scientists that carried out the test!

Perhaps children could shoot a TV commercial to explain to consumers why they think that they should buy a particular product?

I usually round off the session with our PowerPoint presentation showing the children how the scientists at one company have been able to produce a more environmentally friendly washing product. It protects fabrics from damage and prevents colours from fading during washing.  This will help children to understand that science can help us to tackle environmental problems and that science could be a worthwhile career choice for themselves in the future.

Visit  our IndusTRY AT HOME page to find a version of this activity that can be shared directly with families

Monday, March 30, 2020

Fantastic Fungi

Here, at CIEC we have decided to temporarily change the focus of our blog, from supporting teachers to teach the primary science curriculum, to supporting parents with some educational, and also enjoyable, activities to do with their children.  To kick off we are celebrating a new online publication that we launched in January.

You can also find this activity in this year’s British Science Week activity pack (Primary Activity Pack, p.23).  The activity encourages children to grow mushrooms as a sustainable source of protein.  With the correct kit, which is readily available online this is an easy activity to do at home (although, you need to remember, when accepting a delivery, that covid-19 microbes might be present on any outer packaging and remove this as soon as possible).  The activity was taken from our online resource Sustainable stories which is available to download from our website.

It was written in conjunction with a British food company, Quorn, who produce a high protein meat substitute, of the same name, from a type of fungus.   The activity aims to help children to understand that food can come from a variety of sources including animals, plants and fungi.  Also, to think about the impact that different food sources have upon the planet in terms of the resources (such as land and water) that they use.
The activity has lots of great learning opportunities. Don’t try to create a school learning environment at home as you and your child adjust to the ‘new normal’. Informal activities can lead to just as much learning in the long run.

Follow the instructions included in the kit. Mushrooms grow quickly, so this makes a great project for children to practise the skill of ‘observation over time’.  Talk with your child about the changes that they notice from day to day, perhaps including measurements as well as other aspects of the growing mushrooms’ appearance.    If children want to, this could be an opportunity to make a graph or to keep a diary (which could include drawings).  However, if you spend time encouraging children to talk about what they see, plenty of learning will take place even if nothing is recorded.  Children might also choose other ways to record what they see by taking photographs or by using an app such as PicCollage or maybe by making a time lapse or other video recording.
 An adult encourages a child to notice the changes in a growing plant

Another learning opportunity provided by growing mushrooms would be to think about the food that humans need to stay healthy.  Mushrooms are a great source of nutrients and can be cheaply and locally grown.  As long as you follow strict hygiene procedures these mushrooms will be suitable for cooking and eating which would be another worthwhile activity to share with your child.  However, do make sure that they understand that many fungi are extremely poisonous; not only would it be dangerous to eat them it is important to wash hands after handling them

Did you know…?
Fungus is not a plant or an animal but belongs to a completely different family of organisms. This family includes tiny fungi like yeast (which are used to make bread and beer), poisonous fungi (such as the red and white spotty fly agaric) and tasty treats such as oyster and chestnut mushrooms.  

Did you find this blog helpful?  Please leave a comment if you have any questions or if you have any suggestions for what you would like covered in future blog posts.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Sustainable materials: which metal?

Full details of the activity can be found in the new CIEC publication 'Sustainable Stories and Solutions for our Planet' which can be downloaded from  http://www.ciec.org.uk/resources/sustainability.html

Sustainable materials – which metal?

In this activity you will investigate how some metals rust when exposed to oxygen in the air and water. You will learn about some metals that do not change, corrode or rust easily and so have special uses, particularly in reducing gas emissions on highly polluted roads.

It would be a wonderful way to teach the ‘Properties and changes of materials’ strand of the science curriculum for Year 5, with a particular focus on how some changes result in the formation of new materials that is not usually reversible.

The Activity: 
·         Carry out a ‘rust hunt’ to observe how some metals change colour and become weaker (corrode) when they react to substances in the environment.
 ·         Investigate which metals rust by placing everyday metal objects in saucers of shallow water. Over several days, observe which objects start to show signs of rust and which do not. Steel wool pads can be used to test for signs of rusting.
·         Begin to form conclusions about which metals rust and what causes this to happen. You could use a magnet to identify metal items that contain iron or steel.

·         Think of your own ‘rusting’ enquiry questions, such as: can iron or steel rust when there is no water? Does salt speed up rusting? Can I prevent rusting? Plan and carry out your investigation; you can ask for extra ‘kit’ if you need it.

Results from rusting activity using a steel wool pad left for two days in different liquids.

·         Research how some metals, such as gold, silver, platinum and palladium, are unique because they do not react easily, change or corrode. These ‘precious metals’ are often used to make jewellery as well as catalysts which are fitted to car exhaust systems to turn harmful gases produced in the engine into safe gases. 

Links to the National Curriculum
Y5 Properties and changes of materials:

  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

Working scientifically:
  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs 
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations  

Monday, November 11, 2019

Cough Syrup: Thinking like a scientist

Full details of the activity can be found in the CIEC publication 'Cough Syrup' which can be downloaded from  http://www.ciec.org.uk/pdfs/resources/cough-syrup.pdf

This publication contains lots of opportunities for children to think and work like a scientist and learn about the different stages in the production of a new medicine. It would be a wonderful way to teach the ‘Properties and changes of materials’ strand of the science curriculum for Year 5, and then extend the topic as well as the full range of enquiry skills with Year 6.  Teachers may choose to approach this lesson in two different ways.  Children can follow fairly prescriptive instructions which give teachers the opportunity to teach and assess skills such as measuring and graphing and the importance of repeat measurements.  Alternatively, teachers can teach and assess children’s skills to plan, carry out and evaluate a fair test by offering children the opportunity to devise and carry out their own investigation.

The Activity: Filtration
  • In the lesson prior to this, children investigate the most effective method of producing the active ingredient for a new cough syrup. They test different conditions for growing yeast.
  • In this activity, children are reminded that the active ingredient is a micro-organism which is living in a liquid (growth solution) and they are challenged to suggest ways of getting the active ingredient out of the liquid. 
  • After a class discussion about different methods, children think about how to test different materials as filters. They use a mixture of flour and water to represent the micro-organism and growth solution. 
  • Groups might work together to devise a fair test. If using this approach they may find the interactive planning tool a useful resource.  Alternatively, each group could be asked to test four different materials to find the most effective filter. In this case, they should place their first chosen material in a funnel or upturned bottle and hold it over a beaker to collect the water. They should stir and then pour 100ml of their flour and water suspension through the filter and time how long it takes to collect 50ml of the liquid that comes through. 
  • If following instructions, children should repeat this for each of the filters, mixing a new suspension each time. 
  • Throughout the investigation, children would then compare the times taken as well as the clarity of the filtrate. This may be done by straightforward observation or by placing the filtrate in front of a dark background, shining torch light through the liquid and placing them in order of clarity. Light sensors may also be used for increased accuracy and to produce quantifiable results that can be presented in a bar chart or, if comparing time and clarity, a scatter graph. 
  • If children have devised their own test, do not be afraid to let them spend time on activities that you know will not work. Also, allow plenty of time at the end of the lesson to discuss and evaluate the methods that they chose.  This allows for much deeper learning than if they are guided towards a more ‘successful’ test in the first instance.
  • The results of the filtration tests should be reported back to a real or fictitious medicine company and suggestions made about how the active ingredient can be extracted from the filtrate. 
Year 5 children carrying out the filtration activity.

Links to the National Curriculum
Y5 Properties and changes of materials:
  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering and sieving
  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible
Working scientifically:
  • planning different kinds of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variable where necessary.
  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision
  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and tables
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, in oral and written forms

Monday, October 14, 2019

CIEC Role Badges - Promoting Teamwork and Roles from the World of Work

Introducing Role Badges
This week we are featuring our very popular resource - Role Badges. These can be used in any science lesson, and as an advisory teacher for our Children Challenging Industry (CCI) programme, I’d like to share with you my own experience of using them in schools.
While carrying out a CCI science activity, children are given the opportunity to work in small ‘companies’. Each child chooses a role within the group, for example,  Health and Safety Manager or Resources Manager. The children wear a lanyard with a badge showing their role within their ‘company’.
There are five role badges - Health and Safety Manager, Communications Officer, Resources Manager, Administration Officer, and Personnel Manager

The Role Badges provide an excellent opportunity for the children to focus on working cooperatively as a team, whilst highlighting real jobs from the world of industry. The roles can be swapped each lesson so that the children can experience different tasks. Pupils enthusiastically enter into these roles and the badges add an extra buzz of excitement to the lesson!
Children at a school in the North East of England
So How Do The Badges Work In Practice?
Each badge carries a set of responsibilities which are outlined in the resource information. Once the badges are explained the children very eagerly assume their roles.
We strongly encourage teachers to carry out science in groups of four, and provide the fifth role badge purely for classes where the occasional group of five is required. Otherwise, the responsibilities of the Administration Officer are merged with those of the Communication Officer.
The Personnel Manager is responsible for eliminating any disputes within the group and ensuring the team works cooperatively.  Great for developing teamwork skills.
A particularly popular badge is that of Resources Manager. The pupil who is assigned this role is solely in charge of collecting and returning all the resources needed.   This promotes independent working as the children select their own resources.
The Communications Officer elicits the group’s ideas and responses and reports back to the rest of the class whilst the Administration Officer is responsible for keeping pictorial or written records during the activity, e.g. predictions, tables of results, lists of resources, diagrams, conclusions or evaluations for the group.
Lastly, we must not forget to mention the all-important Health and Safety Manager who is responsible for overseeing the safety of the group and assessing any risk involved in practical activities. The pupils are interested to hear that in every UK company today, the Health and Safety Officer is a vital role! Another great topic for discussion.
The badges reflect the CCI programme’s emphasis on careers in industry and prompt the children to begin considering work roles before they encounter ambassadors from industry, or if they are lucky, meet adults on visits to the workplace - as we are able to offer through CCI.
A CCI ambassador, Stephanie Udeogu from Johnson Matthey, talks to a group of children about her role in industry.
An Excellent Tool for Classroom Organisation and Confidence Building and Teamwork
The Role Badges aid classroom organisation by ensuring classroom areas don’t become overcrowded as only a few children need to move around to get the resources they need.  There are nominated people in each group to feedback and record, which ensures a smooth lesson.  
Children can sometimes initially lack confidence when assuming a role but often rise to the challenge and discover that they can do something new.   Prompting each other about their roles enables heightened interaction and promotes good teamwork. Children develop social skills when working in their roles in all sorts of unexpected ways, for example, learning to be less ‘bossy’ or more encouraging,  learning to support others in their roles if they need it, sharing and making decisions. They enjoy the feeling of being given an adult role and feel empowered by it. The badges foster independent work and develop organisational skills.
As one expert testifies: "I have been using the CCI role badges for many years and they are a brilliant way to organise practical science lessons. The children often remind each other of when it is their turn to respond or collect equipment or record some important information. The personnel manager is a fantastic way to ensure teamwork such as turn-taking, sharing and working together." Nicola Waller, CCI Advisory Teacher.

Full details of the role badges are available in the CIEC Primary Resources section which can be downloaded from www.ciec.org.uk/resources/role-badges.html http://www.ciec.org.uk/resources/role-badges.html